The research process includes a preliminary phase, baseline phase, trial, development, evaluation phase, and result phase.
What are the stages of research?
- Identifying the problem
- The literature is being reviewed.
- There are research objectives and hypotheses.
- The study design should be chosen.
- The sample design has to be decided on.
- Collecting data.
- Data processing and analysis.
- The report should be written.
Each research study is unique because of its setting, environment, and time. It’s an outline of your commitment that you intend to follow.
Our primary goal is to choose the best alternative in terms of time constraints, money, and human resources. To ensure a complete approach to the research question, it is important to examine study methods and data to be collected from different viewpoints. A vague problem cannot be solved through research.
It is a common phenomenon in many communities to have an outbreak of the disease after a flood. There are no reasons for the sudden rise in prices of many essential commodities after the announcement of the budget by the Finance Minister.
1000 women were found to be continuous users of contraceptive pills. If the facts are correct, there is no reason to research the factors associated with pill discontinuation among women. The Upazila was the site of a lipiodol injection program three years ago. There is one single reason that the disease is not sensitive to penicillin and therefore, this is not the drug of choice.
It’s not a good idea to conduct a study to find out why penicillin doesn’t improve the condition of cholera patients. Over the years, it has been observed that marketing cost is the highest for the highest bidder, while the lowest for the lowest bidder.
A research problem can be a perceived difficulty, a feeling of uneasiness, or a discrepancy between the common belief and reality. A research situation does not exist if there is only one plausible answer to the discrepancy question. While visiting a rural area, the team observed that some villages have female school attendance rates as high as 75%, while some have as low as 10%, although all villages should have an equal rate of attendance.
In order to ensure regular flow of credit in rural areas at a concession rate, the Government of Bangladesh has been making all-out efforts. Knowledgeable sources say that expected development in rural areas has not yet been achieved because of improper use of the credit.
The hike in the rate of cash reserve requirement, warnings from the International Monetary Fund and practical considerations are some of the factors that play a role in choosing a research problem. In chapter ten there is a detailed exposition of these issues.
The foundation for the development of the research proposal is a clear and well-defined statement of the problem. One or two paragraphs explaining the importance of the problem should be presented in the answers to the above questions. There are a number of ways to identify, define, and analyze a problem. A few basic strategies are required for the exploratory study.
This characteristic distinguishes a pilot survey from secondary data analysis. The researcher can develop a coherence between the results of his study and those of the others through a proper review of the literature. Even for the beginning researchers, a review of previous documents is necessary.
It can lead to wasted effort on the part of the researchers if they ignore the existing literature. In his questioning of the methodology, the choice of the data, and the quality of the results, a confident and expert researcher is more crucial. It helps the researcher understand what is relevant to his area of investigation.
It helps the researcher to know if there are discrepancies in the findings. An objective will give a framework for the scope of the study and say what should be researched. A hypothesis can be challenged or supported by data. Sampling involves any procedure that uses a relatively small number of items or portions of a universe to conclude the whole population.
The gathering of data can range from simple observation to a large-scale survey. It depends on the objectives of the study, the research design, and the availability of time, money, and personnel. Secondary sources of data include the census, vital registration records, official documents, and previous surveys. Errors are reduced in the recording, legibility is improved, and responses are clarified.
It is impractical to place raw data into a report, so alphanumeric codes are used to reduce the responses to a more manageable form. Data editing and coding are possible on the personal computer. Data analysis usually involves reducing accumulated data to a manageable size, developing summaries, searching for patterns, and applying statistical techniques for understanding and interpreting the findings in the light of the research questions. The researcher’s analysis determines if his findings are in line with the formulated hypotheses and theories.
Depending on the objectives of the study, the research design employed, and the nature of data collected, the techniques to be used in analyzing data can range from simple graphical technique to very complex multivariate analysis. A proposal is a document that has the entire task of a research study in it. A research proposal is a work plan, prospectus, outline, an offer, a statement of intent or commitment from an individual researcher or an organization to produce a product or render a service to a potential client or sponsor. The proposal will show the sequence presented in the research process.
An explanation of the research objectives or a definition of the problem is always included. The goal of a scientific study is to draw conclusions. To make a decision, a report needs to be prepared and sent to administrators, policymakers, and program managers.
The primary purpose of a dissemination strategy is to identify the most effective media channels to reach different audience groups with study findings most relevant to their needs. The dissemination can take the form of a conference, seminar, a report, or an oral or poster presentation.
The style and organization of the report will be different depending on the purpose of the research and the target audience. The contributors can submit their manuscripts in accordance with the policies and format for possible publication of their papers. The final step of a scientific study is to plan for its use in the real world.
What is considered Stage 4?
They could have spread to other parts of the body. There are four stages in Stage IV. This stage indicates that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. It may be called advanced or metastatic cancer.
What is the best treatment for stage 4?
- When cancer spreads far, it can become too risky to use chemotherapy.
- Radiation therapy can shrink tumors and help with symptoms.
- The immune system fights cancer.
- To remove the cancer.
- Targeted therapy is meant to slow the growth of tumors.
A group of diseases called cancer cause rapid cell growth. A staging system is used to determine the severity of the cancer. Doctors take different factors into account to determine what stage a cancer is at Common factors include how large the primary tumor is and its location in the body how far cancer has spread to other parts of the body, a process called metastasis.
Treatments aim to improve the person’s quality of life and control their symptoms. The American Cancer Society has information centers for those seeking support.
Is Stage 4 the last stage?
Stage IV cancer is the most severe form of cancer in which the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body. Stage IV cancer is advanced and needs a more aggressive approach, but it is not always terminal.