- There are four types of research methods: surveys, field research, experiments and secondary data analysis.
- Different topics are better suited to different approaches to research.
A researcher wouldn’t walk into a crime-ridden neighborhood at midnight and say “Any gang members around?” If a researcher walked into a coffee shop and told the employees they would be observed as part of a study on work efficiency, the self-conscious baristas might not behave naturally.
Survey, field research, experiment, and secondary data analysis are some of the commonly used methods of social investigation in planning studies. Polls conducted by programs such as So You Think You Can Dance represent the opinions of fans but are not particularly scientific. The popularity of television programming can be determined by the Nielsen Ratings. It is possible to track preferences for presidential candidates, as well as individual behaviors such as sleeping, driving, or texting.
College athletes, international students, or teenagers living with type 1 diabetes are the focus of a survey. If a Gallup Poll is conducted as a nationwide random sampling, it should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion. The researcher develops a plan to ask questions and record responses after selecting subjects.
Those types of questions require short essay responses, and participants willing to take the time to write those answers will convey personal information about religious beliefs, political views, and morals Some topics that reflect internal thought are hard to discuss in a public forum. The results will be unreliable if a researcher steers the subject to respond in a specific way. Field research is gathering primary data from a natural environment.
To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments. The key point in field research is that it takes place in the subject’s natural environment, whether it’s a coffee shop, a homeless shelter, or a hospital. A small sample size does not allow for establishing a relationship between two variables in field research. Small groups of people who share an identity in one aspect of their lives are studied by sociologists.
Scientologists, folk dancers, or members of Mensa, an organization for people with high IQs, express a specific part of their identity through their affiliation with a group. Jimmy Buffet, an American musician who built a career from his single top 10 song “Margaritaville,” has a following of devoted groupies called Parrotheads. Many sub- groups seek to challenge or change society, but the Parrotheads do not, for the most part. Most Parrotheads hold high-level jobs in the corporate world.
They are dressed for the tropics in grass skirts, Hawaiian leis, and parrot hats. In the name of Jimmy Buffet, many Parrothead fan groups have donated to charities and volunteered their services.
After signing a sponsorship deal with a beer company, Jimmy Buffet regained his popularity. From the stage, he tells his fans, “Just remember, I am spending your money foolish.”
They gathered a lot of information online. They collected narrative material from fans who joined the clubs and posted their experiences on websites. A comic writer in 2000 wanted an inside look at white-collar work.
The fascinating descriptions of the inside workings of a “dot com” company were offered in the article. A researcher might work as a waitress in a diner, live as a homeless person for several weeks, or ride along with police officers as they patrol their regular beat.
They realized that the more relevant topic was the effect of industrialization and urbanization. It allows the researcher access to authentic, natural behaviors of a group’s members, which is the main advantage of covert participant observation.
Researchers spend months or even years pretending to be one of the people they are observing inside a group. The end results are often descriptive or interpretive because the information gathered during participant observation is mostly qualitative. She lived and worked among people who lacked higher education and job skills for several months.
She applied for and worked minimum wage jobs as a waitress, a cleaning woman, a nursing home aide and a retail chain employee. She said that fellow employees who held two or three jobs, worked seven days a week, lived in cars, could not pay to treat chronic health conditions, and were fired for failing drug tests, moved in and out of homeless shelters. Difficult working conditions and the poor treatment of low-wage workers were brought to light by her. The book she wrote after returning to her real life as a well-paid writer has been used in many college classrooms.
The heart of an ethnographic study focuses on how subjects view their own social standing and how they understand themselves in relation to a community. An ethnographic study might look at a small U.S. fishing town, an Inuit community, a village in Thailand, a Buddhist monastery, or an amusement park.
An ethnographer would spend a lot of time studying the chosen place, taking in as much as possible. A sociologist studying a tribe in the Amazon might watch villagers and write a paper about it.
Social science research used to objectify women and ignore their experiences. According to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, modern feminists note that describing women and other marginalized groups as subordinates helps those in authority maintain their own dominant positions. In 1924, a young married couple named Robert and Helen Lynd undertook an unprecedented ethnography: to apply sociological methods to the study of one U.S. city. They chose a small town in Indiana as their subject and lived there for 18 months.
TheLynds did not sugarcoat or idealize U.S. life. Like wealthy families, the working class was able to own radios, cars, washing machines, telephones, vacuum cleaners and refrigerators. Readers in the 1920s and 1930s were fascinated by the use of scientific data to define ordinary people in the United States, even though they identified with the citizens of Muncie, Indiana.
This method can be used to study a single case of a foster child, drug lord, cancer patient, criminal, or rape victim. Social contact and language are important to a child’s development.
Oxana Malaya, a Ukranian girl, was neglected at a young age. Oxana was brought into society where she was cared for but never socialized.
Sociology students create artificial situations that allow them to manipulate variables in a lab-based experiment. The sociologist selects a set of people with similar characteristics.
The researcher would not want to jeopardize the accomplishments of either group of students so the setting would be somewhat artificial. In 1971 a sociology professor at California State University at Los Angeles had a theory about police prejudice.
Students who drove to and from campus along Los Angeles freeway routes and had perfect driving records were the ones she chose. She wanted to know if the support of the Black panthers would change how the police treat good drivers. In order to study how women were encouraged to act and behave in the 1960s, a researcher might watch comedies from that period. The emergence of television in the late 1950s and early 1960s may have caused changes in behavior and attitudes.
The advent of mobile phones, the Internet, and Facebook will most likely be studied by researchers in the decades to come. The World Health Organization and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics both publish studies that are useful to sociologists.
Sociology uses a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as they relate to the study in order to guide the search through a vast library of materials. Data that is unavailable in the exact form needed or that does not include the precise angle the researcher seeks is a problem. When conducting content analysis, it is important to consider the date of publication of an existing source and take into account attitudes and common cultural ideals that may have influenced the research.
The scientific method provides a system of organization that helps researchers plan and conduct the study. The study design should provide a framework in which to analyze predicted and unpredicted data, as the information gathered may be surprising. It captures what people think and believe but not how they behave in real life.
A Glossary case study in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual content analysis applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand correlation when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not
What are the 4 types of research methods psychology?
Descriptive, experimental, and correlational methods are used by psychologists Descriptive methods include the case study, naturalistic observation, surveys, archival research, longitudinal research, and cross-sectional research.
What are the 4 types research methods used by experimental psychologists?
- There is a case study.
- Try something.
- There is an observational study.
- A survey is being done.
- Content analysis.
Quantitative research methodology uses numerical data to make descriptions, predict outcomes and test relationships between variables. Qualitative research explores the use of non-numerical data such as text, speech, video, and the like in an attempt to gain an understanding or interpretation of different phenomena, such as social or individual perceptions and behaviors.
Deep inquiry into individuals, groups, communities, or events are involved in case studies. The biographical moments from a patient’s past as well as important events in the individual’s daily life are usually collected in a psychology case study. Although this is a broad kind of research that can be a part of many methods, the term here is used to mean a specific procedure.
These experiments are easy to replicate and allow for good control of variables. The artificial setting may cause unnatural reactions and research biases. Observational research aims to find variables that may impact behaviors in individuals, groups, and social constructs. People in jails and prisons will be observed by psychologists studying mental health.
When participants know they are being watched, there is a change in their behavior that impacts data. For example, psychology researchers have been studying extremists without revealing their identities as a way to study individuals. The main benefit of this methodology is that researchers are in a good position to understand the experiences of the group and the individuals. The active researcher can impact the dynamics of the group and develop biases through forming relationships with individuals being studied.
To measure how certain variables may impact them, respondents are asked to self-report their actions, thoughts, and feelings. Over the internet, in person, in the mail, by telephone, and with video chat are some of the ways they can be conducted. They have a history of documenting the prevalence of social problems. Its strengths include the ability to gather qualitative data.
This method of research involves analyzing large amounts of data in order to find meaning. Through the identification of themes in the data, qualitative content analysis is able to search for meaning in texts. coding and categorizing the content make sense in qualitative analysis. The researcher begins with some theories or hypotheses to help them create coding units from the beginning of the study.
This method runs the data through a filter, which is nothing more than existing research or theories used as guides. A quantitative analysis can be done by summing up the total number of words or phrases. During qualitative summative analysis, researchers look at specific contexts to find meanings in the text.
There is a high level of tedium involved in coding, and it places text into categories and subcategories. In a line-by-line analysis, concepts and categories are named and the process is repeated in open coding. A new theory has emerged from the ideas that were established from the open-coding process. They have produced substantive findings in the field of psychology.
What are the 4 types of research design in psychology?
Descriptive, correlational, and experimental research designs are used to collect and analyze data Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation are some of the Descriptive designs.
What are the four major types of psychological research?
The four main areas of psychology are clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, and biopsychology. In 2021.